Thursday, August 22, 2019

Contingency Theory of Leadership Essay Example for Free

Contingency Theory of Leadership Essay At my workplace we have sales goals that we have to meet and part of my job is to ensure that the staff is achieving their goals and if they are falling behind, I help them find ways to better their selling skills and recognize opportunities. In the table below, categorize different leadership approaches that could be used in the work environment you have described. Provide different suggestions for each of the four approaches to leadership. Directive approachSupportive approach The company has weekly product knowledge training so that the employees know about the products that they are selling. The employees are also rewarded incentives that relate directly to their goals and are aware of their job duties (Jones, 2007) and new procedures shared in our weekly meetings. The individual goals also relate to work schedules the full time employees goals are higher than the part-time employees. The supportive approach to leadership of this group the management is open and very approachable (Jones, 2007). The management also has goals to meet and are always willing to offer advice and additional training to employees. They also meet with employees individually and find out what motivates that specific employee because everyone is different. Participative approachAchievement-oriented approach The employees participate in creating individual goals for themselves (Jones, 2007) and for the branch. They create in-branch promotions and try to make sales fun. Employee suggestions for improvement are put into action and employees are commended for their work ethics and participation with branch promotions. The goals that are set for the employees are realistic, not outrageous (Jones, 2007). By observing the amount of branch traffic, and amount of customers that do not currently have a specific product we can set goals that are achievable.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Glaxo Smithkline Consumer Healthcare

Glaxo Smithkline Consumer Healthcare Glaxo Smithkline Consumer Healthcare Ltd.(GSKCH) is an Indian associate of GlaxoSmithkline plc,U.K. GSKCH is one of the largest players in the Health Food Drinks Industry in India. The Company, with its manufacturing plants located in Nabha, Rajahmundry and Sonepat. Has a total workforce of over 2700 people, each driven by a spirit of enterprise.Its flagship product, Horlicks, is a highly respected brand which is over 100 years old in India. The Company also manufactures and markets Boost, Viva, Maltova, Biscuits and in addition promotes and distributes number of products in diverse categories, including prominent brands such as Eno, Crocin, Iodex.GSKCH has a strong marketing and distribution network in India comprising over 1800 wholesalers and direct coverage of over 4,00,000 retail outlets. . The company has dedicated consumer healthcare RD center takes research as seriously as marketing excellence, offering cutting-edge capability in both. MISSION STATEMENT Our Global Quest is to improve the quality of human life by enabling people to do more, feel better and live longer. As a Global Organization, we are united in our approach to how we conduct ourselves. For us to take pride in our contribution and make a difference, we all must be in touch with the elements that make us successful. OUR SPIRIT We undertake our quest with the enthusiasm of entrepreneurs, excited by the constant search for innovation. We value performance achieved with integrity. We will attain success as a world class leader with each member of our team contributing with passion and an unmatched sense of urgency Our spirit gives us the qualities as individuals and as an organization that will enable us to turn our opportunities into achievements. Our spirit will guide us, keep us focused, and differentiate us from the competition. OVERVIEW of company The first plant was set up at Nabha by M/S Horlicks was being imported and marketed India after being packed in the bottles. The reason why the plant to produce Horlicks was set up in Punjab(Nabha) was because the import of Horlicks was stopped by the government of India,following which the company decided to set up a plant in India itself and the raSw material i.e.milk was available in Punjab.The Maharaja of Nabha laid this foundation stone of the factory. Maharaja Pratap Singh In Nabha on 31st May 1959. The Factory went in for production in March 1960. Barley Malt and Wheat Flour were easily available but the procurement of milk was creating a problem. So to solve it,many milk centres were opened in village around Nabha. Field Officers were appointed to go to the villages for guiding and encouraging farmer to sell milk and tame more milk giving animals for the better income. In the very first year the factory earned profits and about 37% bonus was distributed amongst the employees. Within five years the factories production capacity doubled as the demand for the Horlicks increased and in period of nine years there was four-fold increase in the production of Horlicks. As the demand went on increasing, the production of Horlicks also increased in the Nabha unit. However there was still a gap between the demand and supply therefore, 50% workmen were made permanent and the casuals were enrolled as per the requirement. As the main market for sale was in the south and west of India, the need was felt for establishing small packaging stations of Horlicks is dispatched from Nabha in bulk quantity to Different packaging stations namely Calcutta, Madras, Hyderabad, and Ballabgarh. Only the Calcutta packaging stations, is owned by the company the other packaging stations are on contract. COMPANY PROFILE Company Glaxo Smithkline Consumer Healthcare Ltd. Head Office Gurgaon,Haryana Registered Office Nabha(Punjab) Status Multinational Co. Sales Turnover (2006) Rs. 12,143 (millions), 11.5% increase as . compared last year Profit Before Tax (2006) Rs. 1,905.6 (millions) Export Operations to places Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Middle East, Nepal, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Fiji SECOND LARGEST COMPANY GlaxoSmithkline Consumer Healthcare(GSKCH)is the worlds second largest over-the-counterhealthcare products company and is also ranked second globally in sales of oral-care products. GSK is one of the worlds leading research-based pharmaceutical and healthcare companies, with annual sales of nearly $3billion in 2001 an estimated seven percent of the worlds pharmaceutical market. GSK has over 100,00 employees worldwide. Every second, more than 3 doses of vaccines are distributed by GSK. Every minute, more than 110 prescriptions are written for GSK products. Every hour, GSK spends more than $45000to find new medicines HISTORICAL BACKGROUND GlaxoSmithKline is a pharmaceutical and healthcare company born out of the merger of two leading international organizations. Smithkline Beecham and Glaxo Welcome. Its global mission is To Improve the quality of human life by enabling people to do more,feel better and live longer. THE YEAR 1955 Horlicks a milk product manufactured by Horlicks Ltd. Slough, England was being imported, bottled and sold in India. Due to changes in import policy import stopped. THE YEAR 1956-57 A team from the organization visited to explore the possibilities of setting up a plant with the support of Maharaja of Nabha, His highness PRATAP SINGH, and a plant was set up at Nabha. THE YEAR 1958 On May 31st 1958, Mr. Pratap Singh laid the foundation stone of the Company at Nabha. THE YEAR 1960 On 24th March 1960, the factory went into Production. THE YEAR 1969 Horlicks Group disposed off their holding in India and U.K. To BEECHAM GROUP OF INDUSTRIES which is multinational and owns more than 200 countries engaged in manufacturing of Brylcream , Haircream, Eno fruit salt, Toothpaste , Pure Silvikrin etc. Immediately after taking the management, Beecham Group shifted its head office from Nabha to Delhi. THE YEAR 1979 Beecham India (Pvt.) Ltd. Mumbai merged with Hindustan Milkfood Manufacturers Ltd. and the name was changed to H.M.M.Ltd.Beecham Group Plc. THE YEAR 1991 Smithkline U.S.A. merged on September 16,1991 to form Smithkline Beecham consumer Brands,Plc. with its registered office in the U.K. H.M.M. became a part of smithkline Beecham Consumer Brands, one of the three sector of Smithkline Consumer Brands Ltd. THE YEAR 1994 The name was changed to Smithkline Consumer Healthcare Ltd. to reasset the companys promise of providing Healthcare to consumers. The company decided to do away with its toiletry products and sold its brands like Brylcream and Silvikrin to Sara Lee. THE YEAR 2000 The Company acquired MALTOVA and VIVA brands of nutritional from Jagjit Industries Ltd. A merger took place between Smithkline Beecham and Glaxo Wellcome and the new company Glaxo Smithkline (GSK) was formed on 27-12-2000 THE YEAR 2002 : Change of name took place effective April 23rd, 2002. THE YEAR 2004 : The Bank of Punjab has tied up with the company for facilitating finance on attractive terms to its milk suppliers. The company started packing Horlicks in  ½ kg and 1 kg pouches. Packing machines was imported and installed. As the main market for sale of Horlicks was in the South and East India, need was felt for the sale of Horlicks in small units of the country. Therefore packing station was opened at different places. At present Horlicks is dispatched from Nabha in bulk quantity to the following packing stations: The Company has established a new plant in Sonepat with a capital layout of Rs.246.69 crores.This plant is fully automatic using Spray Dry Technology. This plant has the State of Art Plant and machinery, and is biggest Spray Drying Plant in Asia with European GMP and safety standardsThe Companys manufacturing facilities at Nabha, Sonepat and Rajamundry have received prestigious ISO 14001,ISO 901 certification and its packing facility at Hyderabad and Ballabhgarh continue to maintain the prestigious ISO 9001 certification by SGC, a leading International Certification Company. Company has also started B2B operations with its leading vendor for the purchase of raw material and service under the area information technology. The company has implemented two ERP packages namely JD Edwards and AS400 and connecting up all its business locations all over the country via satellite link. DEPARTMENTAL OVERVIEW The various departments in GSKCH LTD. Located at Nabha are: Human Resource and Administration Department. Manufacturing Department. Procurement Department(Milk Sourcing Procurement and Purchase Department) Quality Assurance Department. Total Quality Management Department. Information Resources(IR) Finance Department Warehouse Supply Chain Management Engineering Department. Environment, Health and Safety Department(EHS). INTRODUCTION TO TOPIC The term labor welfare refers to the facilities provided to workers in and outside the factory premises such as canteen, rest room, recreational facility, housing and all other services that contribute to the wellbeing of workers In the early stages of industrialization. Welfare activities for factory workers did not receive adequate attention. Employers were not inclined to accept the financial burden of welfare programs. Whenever employers provide for such amenities, it was more with a Paternalistic approach to labor rather than a recogonisation of a worker needs. Hence state has to intervene and compulsory provisions are thus incorporated in factories, other establishments where manufacturing is carried out. Welfare is anything that is done for the comfort o and improvement of employees and is provided over and above the wages. Welfare helps in keeping the morale and motivation high so as to retain the employees for longer duration. Welfare measures need not in monetary terms only but it can be any kind or form. Labor welfare entails all those activities which are directed towards providing the employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages and salaries. OBJECTIVES- TO PROVIDE BETTER LIFE AND HEALTH TO WORKERS TO MAKE THE WORKERS HAPPY AND SATISFIED. TO RELIEVE WORKERS FROM INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE AND TO IMPROVE INTELLECTUAL, CULTURAL AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS OF LIVING OF WORKERS. The govt. of India has enacted various labor laws, social security and welfare schemes to adequately protect the interest of working class. In case of welfare provisions we have a distribution of statutory and non- statutory measures or voluntary measures- STATUTORY MEASURES WASHING FACILITY STORING AND DRYING CLOTHES FACILITY FACILITY FOR SITTING CANTEENS SHELTERS, REST ROOMS AND LUNCH ROOMS CRECHES WELFARE OFFICERS NON- STATUTORY MEASURES MEDICAL BENEFITS EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS HOUSING FACILITY RECREATIONAL FACILITY CONSUMER COPERATIVE SHOPS TRANSPORTATION FACILITY VOCATIONAL TRAINING HOLIDAY HOME ANDLEAVE TRAVEL FACILITY NAD MANY MORE. Statutory measures in GSK nabha Facilities for sitting sec 44 For workers who are to work in a standing position, suitable arrangement for sitting shall be provided in the factories. This enables workers to take advantage of any opportunities for rest which may occur in the course of their work. In GSK with the workshops there are sitting facilities available like desk and benches at the corner of walls and are there in order to enable worker to take rest because of any opportunity which may occur in course of their work. First Aid Appliances: Sec 45 of factories act states that if a factory possesses 150 workers then there should be a first aid box and cupboards equipped with the required contents in every factory. This should be readily accessible to them during all working hours. The number of such first aid boxes shall not be less than one 150 workers in the factory. Now in case of GSK there are two ambulances which are available for 24: 7 within the factory premises. There is small dispensary which has trained doctors, two nurses and a compounder during the factory hours. These doctors and medical staff and other medical staff is available during the night hours. Even there are 10-15 first Aid boxes available in respective departments of HEEP and CFFP i.e. in material department, production department, Administrative buildings, workshops, even in canteen. Canteens : we have in total of 3 canteens in GSK , Hardwar unit. 2 canteens are in HEEP unit and 1 canteen in CFFP unit. In HEEP we have one staff canteen where executives can have lunch and other two canteens were from shop level to supervisor have lunch. GSK offers subsidized canteen facility to its employees. One plate of food cost 50 paisa and one tea two snacks costs 25 paisa. Also there is a officer appointed to check on food quality the canteen is run by organization itself. 4)Shelters rest room and lunch rooms: As per section47 of factories act 1948, GSK have rest rooms, small lunch rooms, gardens where employees/workers can rest during lunch hour or free time. The rooms are cleaned everyday having separate area for drinking water. There is separate water room for water cooler, comfortable table and chairs for rest purpose. 5) Crà ¨ches facilities: Under section 48in GSK NABHA, we have the facility of crà ¨che available for women workers employed in the factory. The crà ¨ches is located within the factory premises near the entrance gate rooms are well adequately lighted ventilated, clean and with a trained woman who looks after the children and infants. The children are given healthy food with milk thrice in a day in morning during noon and once in evening time Welfare officers: AS per sec.49 GSK is having a separate department which looks after the facilities (welfare) provided to workers. They keep check on quality of food in canteen, in crà ¨che, also on condition of rooms. Mr.C.S. SHARMA is head of welfare department in GSK NABHA.. These above statutory measures are followed at very large level in all GSK units admit has lead to building up of a positive, motivated(1130) which can b retained for a longer period. Non statutory/voluntary measures- 1.Medical benefit at GSK Medicare is a federally administered health insurance program for people 65 years of age or older, certain disabled individuals that have been receiving Social Security Disability Insurance for 24 months, and for people with End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure treated with dialysis or a transplant). Medicare was created as part of the Social Security Act of 1965, and currently provides benefits to over 40 million people.Effective January 1, 2006, Medicare will begin providing outpatient prescription drug benefits to beneficiaries for the first time in the history of the program. Drug coverage and benefit design varies according to the Part D plan selected. Each year, Medicare beneficiaries may elect to sign up for a Medicare plan that includes Part D coverage. During this inaugural year, the open enrollment period runs through May 15, 2006. Additional information is available at www.medicare.gov and through Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Educational facility- GSKprovides VOCATIONAL TRAINING to different students of different field such as MBA-HR and FINANCE, b-tech all. Housing facility- GSK provides housing facility to its employees and has its own township which is called BIR NIWAS in nabha. Each apartment has set of rooms from 2-5 and employees are charged very minimal amount as rent of house. With the housing, GSK also provide free electricity (certain units), free water facility and free housing maintence etc. Also for the retired employed, GSK also provide them free housing facility for first 2 months of retirement, but other are charged Rs.4000/month as per separate accommodation. Recreational facilities- Not only focusing on productivity, GSK keep their employees engaged in various sports and cultural activities. We have GSK CLUB and STADIUM where different activities like sports and swimming are played. In CONVENTIONAL HALL for picture and plays, cultural activities are conducted. On the eve of Independence Day, republic day there are various cultural programs, parade are organized. Not only these, within factory premises, there are inter- unit competitions are conducted like different sports activities running are conducted on national holidays. For the welfare of women there is ladies club managed by wives of employees. They have their own work related by weaving, stiching, photocopy, making masalas etc. Every year, GSK contributes some part of their earning into WOMEN/LADIES CLUB. Other Voluntary measures/ Benefits and pay (TotalReward) TotalReward is how GSK rewards its employees for their contribution to its success. But its more than just a salary it rewards high performance, invests in development, partners with employees to save for the future, and supports employees health and wellbeing: Pay salary, bonus/sales incentives and recognition awards Shares Savings share plans, savings plans, pension plan Health Life Healthcare Plan, Health MOT, Holidays, Employee Assistance Programme, Tax-free: Plans, Discounts Development Performance and Development Plan The composition of the pay and benefits package and details of individual benefits schemes are subject to change at the discretion of GSK. Offering competitive pay that rewards performance is critical to their long-term success. GSK pay programmes are designed to give the opportunity to earn good rewards for good performance and superior rewards for superior performance. Key features: A competitive base salary An annual bonus which is the main reward for performance, both Company performance and individual performance A Recognition Program to recognize and reward special achievements and contributions by employees and teams The composition of the pay and benefits package and details of individual benefits schemes are subject to change at the discretion of GSK. Shares Savings The GSK share plans give employees a stake in GSKs success and the ability to gain in line with the shareholder value them help create. GSK also helps their employees save for the future by contributing to their pension, and offering a range of tax-efficient savings plans and financial education programmes to help them make the most of their TotalReward. Key features: A money purchase Pension Plan in which GSK contributes a minimum of 5% of your pensionable pay and matches employee contributions up to another 5% A ShareReward plan in which employee receive a free GSK share for every share they buy Financial Education Programme, providing employee with a wide range of financial planning options Long-term incentives, if eligible, to give employee a personal stake in GSKs future The composition of the pay and benefits package and details of individual benefits schemes are subject to change at the discretion of GSK Health Life GSKs mission is to help people do more, feel better and live longer, and this approach is extended to GSK employees. Health Life plans are designed to make it easier for you to balance your work and personal life and to care for yourself and your family whatever your circumstances. Key features: Healthcare: designed to give employee and their family access to prompt medical treatment when and where they need it Employee Assistance Programme: designed to offer a helping hand when it comes to organising and dealing with the pressures of work and family life Tax-free: bikes, childcare, health assessment and holiday: a range of salary sacrifice plans designed to save money in exchange for benefits Car Allowance: if eligible, a monthly car allowance which employee can use to purchase a car through the scheme or take as cash the choice is their. Discounts: a range of discounted products and services designed to support employee health, wealth and well-being Holidays: employees are entitled to 26 paid personal holiday days each year (increasing to 27 days after five years service and 28 days after 10 years service) plus eight paid public holidays and the opportunity to sacrifice salary to buy five more additional days. If they join during the year (January to December) their entitlement will be prorated .The composition of the pay and benefits package and details of individual benefits schemes are subject to change at the discretion of GSK. Development Be the best that you can be. At GSK, your Performance and Development Plan helps you understand what you need to do to contribute to GSKs success, how you need to perform and how to develop your career at GSK. PDP: helps you identify what you need to do and the behaviours you need to demonstrate to achieve success as well as the areas you need to develop to attain greater reward The composition of the pay and benefits package and details of individual benefits schemes are subject to change at the discretion of GSK. PROOFS GSK REIMBURSEMENT RESOURCE CENTER The BEXXAR ® THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN (Tositumomab and Iodine I Tositumomab) PATIENT INFORMATION FORM Please fax completed Form to: (866) 216-5292 Phone: (800) 745-2967 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Patients Last Name First Middle Initial Social Security Number Date of Birth __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Street Address City State ZIP Code Home Telephone Primary Insurance Secondary Insurance Company Name ______________________________________________ __________________________________________ Telephone _______________________________________________________ __________________________________________ Subscribers Name __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Relationship to Patient _________________________________________ __________________________________________ Social Security #______________________ Date of Birth _____________ _____________________ Date of Bir___________ Policy ID # ______________________ Group # ____________________ ________________________Group #____________ Employer ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________ Please attach GSK Reimbursement Resource Center Patient Authorization to Release and Disclose Medical Information Form (If you do not have the patient authorization form, please call (800) 745-2967 to request it. We will not be able to provide patient-specific reimbursement services without the signed authorization.) Patient Medical Information Name of Treatment Site where BEXXAR will be administered:_____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Administering treatment site contact name Contact Telephone # BEXXAR Therapeutic Regimen will be provided [ ] Outpatient Hospital [ ] Inpatient Hospital [ ] Free Standing Facility Primary Diagnosis (Please provide actual code or codes): _________________________________________________________________________________ Previous Treatment(s): ______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Justification for BEXXAR Therapeutic Regimen (check all that apply) [ ] Statement of Medical Necessity attached [ ] Other (please specify) __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ Authorized Prescribing Physicians Signature Date _________________________________________________________________________________________ Authorized Prescribing Physicians Name (Please print) _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ Issues regarding GLAXO SMITHKLINE ARTICLE(issue addressed on child healthcare by gsk) The Childrens Health Funds Referral Management Initiative Homeless and disadvantaged children are especially vulnerable to illness. Theyre more likely to suffer from acute and chronic illnesses such as asthma. Many do not receive vaccinations. Yet millions of these children cannot get healthcare because there is no transportation, or because there arent enough doctors, in disadvantaged communities. Sometimes there are language barriers. These problems all make it difficult for their families to keep hospital appointments. The Childrens Health Fund provides a Referral Management Initiative (RMI) to help children get the care they need whenever they are referred to a specialist. The RMI reminds families about doctor appointments by phone and mail. It also provides door-to-door transport to clinics and can even provide translation services if necessary. When the program began, one in twenty children who were referred to a specialist actually made it to the appointment; now-through the RMI-three out of four do. GSK is the sole funder of the RMI and has awarded $8 million to date. The program is expanded from New York to Washington, DC, Dallas, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and South Florida,india. CHF hopes to introduce similar initiatives nationwide. Irwin Redlener, President of the Childrens Health Fund, comments The Childrens Health Fund partnership with GSK has been responsible for positively transforming the lives of tens of thousands of medically underserved children in need of specialist care. ANALYSIS THE article discuss about the issue of healthcare in different countries like Washington, DC, Dallas, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and South Florida,india which has been addressed by gsk at large scale by initiating a system of referral management initiative which aims at providing funds and healthcare facility to children in above mentioned countries and this initiative has been applied to the labour working in the same company through same RMI system though an expeniditure of dollar 8 million till date that means GSK is not only concerned about their employees only but they are concerned about the society from which they are coming and hence creating better human resource. CASE STUDY(issue regarding allotment of medical benefit to workers aswell as society) GLOBAL P U B L I C P O L I C Y I S S U E S GlaxoSmithKlines Position GSK is a leader in: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Applying computerised statistical tools to facilitate the evaluation of safety information through, for example, the identification of unexpected adverse events that are being reported on a disproportionate basis (safety signals). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Evaluating and applying pharmacogenetics2 to enhance the risks and benefits of our medicines for patients. As part of our efforts, we collect blood samples for potential DNA analysis in the majority of our Phase I, II and III drug development trials (with ethics committee review .. GSK is in regular dialogue with Regulators (e.g. US FDA, EMEA and Japans Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) regarding how PGx data should be interpreted and applied on a case by case basis during the development, licensing and post marketing phase of a medicine. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Supporting the public disclosure of the results (including safety information) from GSK sponsored clinical trials. In 2004 we launched the GSK Clinical Study Register which provides summary results from all GSK sponsored trials (phase I-IV) of marketed medicines completed since the formation of GSK. These summaries include all the serious adverse events and common adverse events reported in the trials. Proposal for Enhancing Pharmacovigilance Data Collection and Evaluation The tools and processes used in pharmacovigilance are continually evolving. Effective use of these tools, along with improved reporting and communication tools, helps to ensure that potential and actual side effects can be better identified in investigational and marketed medicines. GSK recommends that initiatives to improve the pharmacovigilance framework should include: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Improved reporting: Collection of data on rare side effects through company or regulatory agency databases serves as an important starting point for possible further action. However, one of the shortcomings of this system is the variable nature of reporting and the quality of reports received. One of the chief difficulties with side effect reporting is ensuring the quality of the databases, and obtaining any necessary follow-up information. Resources are often expended in contacting health care professionals regarding aspects of a report they have filed. In some instances, the reporter is unable or unwilling to provide sufficient detail to allow for a rigorous evaluation of the reported event. GSK would therefore support initiatives aimed at improving pharmacovigilance through improved education of medical students and physicians regarding the quality of ADR reporting. Training modules could explain the role and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in reportin g ADRs; how to identify and evaluate an ADR; and how to prepare and submit reports of high quality Real-life / real-time databases: Pharmacovigilance could be enhanced by using novel technologies to allow companies and regulators to access anonymised data obtained from the use of medicines in clinical practice. For example, information captured systematically in electronic patient records could help identify a potential association between a side effect and a particular medicine or combination of medicines, by facilitating a comparison of side effects be

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Modernity And Cinema In Bengal Film Studies Essay

Modernity And Cinema In Bengal Film Studies Essay Realism and Modernity are two words closely associated with Bengali cinema. Some of the greatest and among the most popular filmmakers of Bengal took realist genre of films to a new height, alongside reflecting modernist ideas. Realism and modernity go hand-in-hand in Bengali films, especially in the work of greats like Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak. Although defining modernity would mean at least a few more pages, for the sake of this essay, we would deduct it down to merely social, political and artistic modernization. Satyajit Rays magnum opus Pather Pancheli is one of the greatest examples of realist films portraying various elements of modernity. Inspired by Italian neo-realism (especially Vittorio De Siccas Bicycle Thief, 1948), Ray created his first film and a masterpiece reflecting the evolution and social change in Bengal and a modernization of ideas and concepts. In Pather Panchali, Ray talks about leaving old ideas behind and moving on. He talks about how over time, old ways of living, ancestral ideas and traditional lifestyle has become stale and needs to be changed. Apu, with his family, leaves his home and village at the end because the ancestral house held them behind. They moved to find a better way of living. They moved to get rid of the old house which couldnt help them in any way, but instead took their daughters life. This whole film is a transition from pre-modern to a modern way of living. Ray distributes several metaphors throughout the film metaphors of modernity and need for change. One important character which served as a metaphor for me was that of the old aunt. Shes old, tired and just wanders around the house doing nothing. Shes often told to go indicating shes not wanted in the house. The family is fed up of her just as theyre fed up of traditions and the same lifestyle theyd been living in the fear of famine, poverty and survival. The old aunt wanders, trying to find a place for herself, and when she doesnt, she dies. Ray shows death of old ideas. Ray wants change. He shows a need for change and a breakaway from traditions which are holding you back. He wants to show theres always a need for change. The old aunt is a mere metaphor for him to show how traditions have become stale. Charulata (1964), another one of the great films by Ray, also talks about change. But here, he sets it in an upper middle class Bengali society where a lonely housewife falls in love with her brother-in-law while they both encourage each other to write. He puts two different ideas of home and desire, literature and politics, pre-modernism and modernity face-to-face. Rays films have a humanistic touch. He uses his craft to get to the deepest part of human heart and extract out the emotions from there. Scenes like Apu throwing away the necklace Durga had stolen, Amal leaving home to avoid being unfaithful, Durga stealing food for her aunt add to the humanistic approach of Satyajit Rays work. Neo-realism is another thing that inspired Ray. According to me, its mainly because his stories were about society. He couldnt have made them in a fictional style because then they wouldnt be relevant to the society. His stories were not meant to be mere films, but a reality somewhere in time which needed to be imitated in Bengali society and which was a reflection of the same society he lived in. His characters were sketches of real people. They were close to real. For example, when you think Durga, you dont think of her as a two-dimensional good or evil character, but as a girl who existed and had different attributes to her personality just like everybody else. She wasnt a puppet. Similarly, Ritwik Ghataks films introduced different modern themes to the evolving society of Bengal such as alienation, isolation, need for home. In one of his most personal and also socially relevant films Ajantrik, Ghatak introduces the concept of alienation and isolation from the society. He shows a mans attachment to his car, an inanimate object and a troubled social life where he cant connect well to the people around him. Scenes like where the character Bimal is talking to his car, the car responding to him, him taking care of the car like a companion and not caring about what his society says, show how important a character Jagaddal (the car) is. Ghatak doesnt treat the car as a prop, but as a character itself. He tries to show the cars point of view; he wants to make us feel its presence thus implying the fact how relations have also evolved along with modernization of ideas and society; how people have become more involved with their property rather than fellow human beings. Similarly, in Subarnarekha (1965), Ghatak reflects on the feeling of home (along with many other sub-themes such as happiness, relations). His work has been about change, modernity and its effects and mainly, how partition has affected society and Ghatak himself. In Subarnarekha, he tells a story of a family moving to the bank of Subarnarekha River after the partition and how the girl Sita seeks happiness throughout the film. Moreover, he tells of her feeling at the new home. The river becomes the new home for her who she confides in her secrets, woes and happiness. From what I observed in Ghataks films, he believes that society has changed from being a community to more of a collective living of different individuals. I observed individualism in his work, and how people have turned from their fellows to nature or man-made beauty whether it is mountains and rivers to cars and property. I think there are many modernist elements found in both Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghataks films ranging from their content and themes (home, anthropomorphism, modernity itself) to their craft (use of POV shots, different style of cinematography, manipulating space and even the use of Brechtian elements). Mise-en-scene of Subarnarekha Subarnarekha by Ritwik Ghatak has a totally different feel from Ghataks Ajantrik where he uses machinery and artificial elements. Here he turns to nature. He turns to landscapes for expression of emotions. His landscapes speak. For example, in every scene when Sita sings, we see landscapes of river and surroundings. At times, it seems like Sita is singing to the river, telling her story. Ghatak has a strong fascination of juxtaposing sound and landscape and how it creates an impact in viewers mind. Whats interesting to note is how the kind of landscape shows the state of mind of character, such as when shes happy, we see rice fields and river and when shes sad and bored, we see a barren land. Watching a Ritwik Ghatak film is like going on a travel journey around the state. He shows you picturesque landscapes which strongly reflect nature and emotions. Another important thing which is part of the mise-en-scene is strange framing. Ghatak likes to frame his subjects on extreme and odd points of the grid and juxtapose them to their background, giving them a context. For example the scene where Sita is singing of her woes in a barren land around her and when she ends, the camera dollies out just showing Sitas body (which is also cut in the frame and not properly placed). You can expect the unexpected in Ghataks style of framing. He wouldnt use conventional framing in Subarnarekha, but put two images side by side to create a different context. In Subarnarekha, Ghataks art direction also plays an important role. They also help create the mise-en-scene of the film. The river, the lonely plains, one house in the middle of nowhere, very little to no people, an old abandoned place where the war took place they all develop a certain mood. The movement and transition from a small town school to a journey across the border and to a lone house in the midst of barren land. It creates a symphony a lyrical transition from one note to another. Pace of the film is another thing thats part of the mise-en-scene. The time duration of the film determines how long it would feel compared to the real time. Ghatak manipulates time to the extent where Subarnarekha starts to feel realist which means time is slowed down, although not exactly to match the real time. He changes pace continuously to match the action and the passing of time. Subarnarekha is divided into chapters occurring in different passing time periods. Camera movement is quite natural in the film. Most of the time, Ghatak uses the invisible camera method and doesnt change points of view except at a point where Abhiram recognizes his lost mother. In that scene, camera shifts focus as to provide a point of view of Abhiram recognizing her mother. Ghatak uses space quite realistically creating a perfect illusion of real space. I think Ritwik Ghataks choice of shooting on-location really helped him stay true to his realistic nature of the film (just like many realist filmmakers of 20th century). Costumes, as part of the films mise-en-scene, are minimal and are there just to show the traditional way of life. It hasnt been stylized like setting, sound and camera work. Acting (considering it a part of mise-en-scene) has been reduced to appear natural unlike some of the early films which imitated theater.

Monday, August 19, 2019

How To Hit A Golf Ball :: essays research papers

Although golfers end the day on the 18th green, their day begins on a tee box. A drive, the first hit off a tee toward the objective hole, may seem very routine and insignificant, but, in fact, it is the most important shot taken on each hole. If golfers hit a long drive into the nicely cut fairway, they have only to hit the ball off the nicely cut grass on usually a clear path to the hole. But if they hit a drive into the woods, then they have to make sure the ball does not hit any trees, branches, or other obstacles when exiting the woods. That’s why hitting a good drive is a must. With practice, even you can hit a fundamental drive. First, before you can drive a ball, you need the right equipment. You will need a number one wood, or driver, a golf tee, and, preferably golf shoes for extra traction to prevent your feet from sliding. Now that you have the proper equipment, you can begin the drive. First, take the golf tee and insert it into the ground with the needle-like bottom down. Then, place the golf ball on the platform of the tee. The tee should be set at a height of comfort for the golfer. The size of the driver head, or part that comes into contact with the ball during a swing, should be taken into consideration because the middle of the ball should be struck with the sweet spot, or middle of the clubface. Next, approach the ball and establish a stance. The stance of your legs should be shoulder width apart and square with the shoulders. More advance golfers may use open or closed stances, but a square stance is best for beginners. After establishing a stance that is comfortable then take the golf club, holding the shaft on the tape with the left hand placing the thumb on top of the shaft pointing to the ground while the other four fingers are wrapped around the handle holding it. After doing this extend the left elbow to a locking position and place the right hand on the shaft in the same fashion, but put the palm of the right hand on top of the left hand thumb. The grip should seem very comfortable. This is called the baseball grip, a widely used grip by beginning golfers.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Essay --

The Evolution of Air Defense Artillery the time was the late 1800’s and the airplane was created and included in that warfare adopted those and made of then warplanes so every country had to make something to defend their lands from the attacks form their respective enemies. The term of anti-aircraft artillery (AA) witch was a detachment from the field artillery by modifying their weapons so that they can be able to reach the low flying aircraft attacking their territory. But the term of air defense was first used by Great Britain in the year of 1925 by the royal air force. One of the first weapons used in AA was the Gustav Krupp used to shoot down the ballons in the Franco-Prussian War with took place in the 1870. A few years later in Europe the Krupp, Erhardt, Vickers Maxim, and Schneider were created to be used as AA weapons. But here in the US the first anti-aircraft cannon was created by the Admiral Twining the 3"/23 caliber gun for the US Navy in 1911. But later on, the aircraft were also evolving so every country had to evolve their ways to take down their enemies for example...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Personal goal and professional goal Essay

Submit a statement that discusses your career goals, as well as the factors that led you to select the Mid-Career MPA program as a means of furthering your personal and professional goals. Be as specific as possible in describing how your expected course of study will enable you to build on your prior professional experience and achieve these goals (750 word limit). Economic development and welfare of the people are the natural fit with my personality traits from my childhood which allowed me to choose the highest level of Federal Civil Service Examination of India and got selected in this merit based competitive examination. Candidates with different To get the blend of all the fields I was the class monitor up to class 5th; class president from 6th to 11th class to conduct the weekly debates, secretary of the scientific society in college, in Students’ Union at Indian School of Mines, club secretary in Ordnance Factory, and secretary, Residence Welfare Association. I was in National Cadet Corps and Junior Red Cross Society. After completing the schooling and graduation with merit scholarships I joined Indian School of Mines, the premier Institute for Earth science for Masters in applied Geology through national competition. Selected in National Education Test of UGC and with a scholarship from Council for Scientific and Industrial Research I completed M. Phil. Initially, 12 years I have worked in middle level management in various Defence production units mainly in the field of Administration, Industrial Relations, Human Resources, Estate and store. I got one year exposure in policy issues in Higher Technical Education. As the head of Coal Mines provident Fund Organization (CMPFO) for two years, I sought to improve the public service to benefit 7.5 lakh coal workers in the field of provident funds and pensions bringing reforms in a mission mode. SAP ERP was implemented in the organization which was first in govt. department in India. A bench mark was created in engaging multiple Fund Managers leading to transparency and fair competition. I had the exposure of Board level management in Mineral Exploration Corporation limited, a pan India Company as Director. Four years under my leadership, as the country head of computerization at Employees’ Provident Fund Organization (EPFO), the organization transformed from manual environment to fully computerized system. All receipts and payments of PF and pension became online making the life of 50 million poor workers easy removing all paper returns. The interactions are now through web and SMS reducing the footfalls of workers and employers in EPFO offices. 6 years, while working with the Federal Ministers for Water Resources, Rural Development and as the Director in coal ministry of Government of India, I have actively participated in development of macro level policies, its formulation and implementation. To name a few are; the National Water Policy, Land Use Policy for Inclusive Economic Development, Drinking Water and Sanitation, Corporate Social responsibility in coal sector, re-engagement of ex-service personnel in coal transportation, Poverty Eradication through National Rural Employment Guaranty Act to meet the Millennium Development Goal, programme were massive initiatives of the Government. I have played important role in the planning and monitoring of execution of such policy options. Additionally, I have been deeply engaged in my advisory role to the ministers to address the political and other socio-economic development issues of the different political provinces of India. Now I am working in top level management of Ordnance Equipment Factory, a Defence production Unit of India. The Mason program is intended to provide the analytical and leadership skills to implement major social and economic change. It has the sessions on experience sharing, strategic management, communication, and policy decision making. The curriculum also includes the applied economics, quantitative analysis, political institutions and globalisation. My extensive experience in multiple roles in different government departments of India will provide a good fit to contribute during the MPA programme as a Mason Fellow. My in-depth knowledge in important streams of public work will further allow me to perform effectively during my academic work at Harvard. I have credible track record of having developed and fostered enhanced level of partnership and cooperation between the stakeholders engaged in the faster socio-economic growth of India. I have demonstrated leadership skills by initiating several joint institution development activities with government, which all will be honed through a formal exposure to a MPA programme at Harvard. I have dreamt and aspired lately to be a Mason Fellow and would accomplish my personal goals of doing public good with improved knowledge and competence. I seek to join a mid career management course in public administration to sharpen my ideas in consonance with the emerging National and International Economic Scenario. I strongly feel MPA under Mason Programme, would provide me this opportunity to upgrade my capacity and equip me with latest management techniques. As I grow in my career, I would be required to take more responsibility and be associated in major policy making issues in govt. in the country.

Keystone XL pipeline Essay

Keystone XL pipeline will be great for United States economy because it will bring more taxes to government from oil companies and public. However, the effect on the environment, economy and residents of America are destructive. The things through which people and environment will be affected are: Water, forest destruction, disease. First, the Keystone XL pipeline would travel through rivers such as Missouri river, Yellowstone, and Red rivers. Two million of population is depended on these rivers for drinking water. If somehow oil spill into these river, it would be a great disaster because people will be out of water until is completely clean again. Also, there marine life will die because of oil which will affect the business of the marine industry. In short, Keystone Xl pipeline will become expense for government. The expenses would be greater than the taxes gathered by the Keystone Xl pipeline Second, In the process of digging up tar sands oil, the forests are destroyed. As fores t plays an important role to protect environment by consuming Carbon dioxide and providing oxygen for human and animals. The more oil means more emission of Carbon dioxide and less forest to make clean environment. In addition, Animals will die or will travel to different areas which will impact the environment of that area. Because all animals play part in the environment: some help to provide food for humans, some help in the cycle of different nutrients throughout the ecosystem, and others help to speed up decomposition. Third, the location where tars sands oil is extracted has increased the rates of Cancer in surrounding areas. For example, â€Å"In the lakeside village of Fort Chipewyan[..] 100 of the town’s 1,200 residents have died from cancer.†(Foe) If spoil spill in American communities it will also increase cancer in American population. Country’s biggest asset is its people. If citizens are not healthy then they are unable to work which ultimately will have negative impact on the country’s economy. All in all, United States will have disastrous impact on its environment, economy, and residents.