Thursday, August 27, 2020

Financial Accounting Theory Standards Board

Question: Examine about the Financial Accounting Theory Standards Board. Answer: Presentation: Impalpable resources are significant piece of the benefit structure of any organization. It very well may be characterized as the recognizable non-financial resources that can't be seen, contacted or genuinely estimated. An elusive resource can be made or obtained. There is credited an incentive to any impalpable resource (Deegan 2013). These advantages offer valuable help for an organization to proceed with its business viably. Altruism, licenses, licenses, RD, copyrights and significantly more are instances of elusive resources. Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) characterized elusive resource announcing standard in the 138 piece of the revealing norm. This task examines the consistence of AASB 138 in the yearly report of two Australian mammoth organizations Woolworth and Telstra. Woolworth is a grocery store and Telstra is a media transmission organization. The immaterial resource report examination of Woolworth is in the initial segment and the investigation of Telstras impalpable resource report is in the second. The examination is finished by AASB. Audit of Woolworths and Telstras Financial Report on Intangible Assets: Woolworths 2016 Annual Report Analysis: Woolworths 2016 yearly report on immaterial resources comprises of altruism, brand names, alcohol and gaming licenses and others. They ordered their immaterial resources in four gatherings: generosity, brand names, alcohol and gaming licenses and others. Their impalpable resources recognizable proof complies with Australian Accounting Standards Boards (AASB) number 138 standard in regards to divulgence of elusive resources in the money related report (Yao and Hu 2013). The advantages referenced in the report as elusive resources in the money related report are recognizable, have some worth, ailing in physical substance, non-fiscal, controllable and convey future budgetary advantages. These advantages are not immaterial resources in the extent of other norm, money related resources according to AASB 132 (Steenkamp and Steenkamp 2016), investigation or assessment resources according to AASB or use on advancement and extraction of oil, minerals and related sources. Each elusive resource has a helpful life. Reasonable worth is assigned to them. These advantages can be sold, isolated, moved, leased or traded exclusively or with another benefit. Huge numbers of these benefits emerge from legitimate or authoritative rights. The expenses of these advantages are determined precisely. There are no inside created impalpable resources in the report in the elusive resource segment. The Cost Model and Revaluation Model are utilized for valuation of the advantage s. The impalpable resources with limited valuable lives are appropriately amortized and those with inconclusive helpful lives are tried for weakness (Russell 2015) in consistence of AASB 136. The report reveals the accompanying data about the companys impalpable resources. Limited or endless helpful existences of the immaterial resources. Utilized amortization strategy for an immaterial resource with limited valuable life. Net conveying sum and collected amortization at start and end of the period. Conveying sum compromise at start and end of the period. Purposes behind thinking about an immaterial resource for have an uncertain valuable life. Nitty gritty money related report on the Cash Generating Unit gatherings. Woolworths elusive resource area is very point by point and passes on much data about the organization resources. Being an enormous organization, their generosity, distinctive brand names, different licenses are of gigantic worth. The report shows that the expense of their impalpable resources is around $6000 million ( 2016). Telstras 2016 Annual Report Analysis: Telstra is Australia biggest media transmission organization. Their 2016 yearly report contains the accompanying immaterial resources: altruism, licenses, programming resources, conceded consumption and different intangibles. Telstras yearly report is the ideal case of an AASB 138 agreeable report. This report secured all the parts of the companys elusive resources. The whole resource related and the valuation-related data is given to help the client of this data to comprehend (Rindova and Martins 2012). The report records every single immaterial resource of the organization barring the elusive resources which will be material in another norm, budgetary resources according to AASB 132, assessment and investigation resources according to AASB 6 and mineral, oil and related assets extraction and advancement consumptions. The elusive resources definitions incorporate resource, dynamic market, cost, reasonable worth and helpful life. The benefits are effectively recognizable, without physical presence and non-money related in nature. The advantages are going to give benefits in future and their expense can be dependably estimated. The inside created impalpable resources are excluded. The Cost Model and Revaluation Model are utilized for valuation of the advantages. The immaterial resources with limited valuable lives are amortized and the ones with boundless helpful lives are tried for weakness in understanding to AASB 136. The yearly report unveils the accompanying data about Telstras elusive resources: Net conveying sum and aggregated amortization at start and end of the period. Compromise of conveying sum at start and end of the period. Strategies for amortization utilized for immaterial resources with limited lives. The announcement of pay that incorporates costs for amortization. Purposes behind considering an advantage having an uncertain valuable life. Related data about the immaterial resources. Evaluation of disability. Subtleties of Cash Generating Units and its altruism designation Figuring of Value being used. Telstras yearly report on immaterial resources contains all the necessary parts as determined in AASB 138 ( 2016). It fits in with that consummately. All the necessary data can be effectively found in this report. Their all out yearly elusive resource in 2016 is around $10000 million ( 2016)! Examination of Woolworth and Telstras Intangible Asset Report: The 2016 Annual Report of Woolworth and Telstra are both consistent with AASBs 138 gauges. Be that as it may, there are a few contrasts in the introduction and exposure. Woolworths report is brief; it covers just the fundamental parts of divulgence of immaterial resources. There are very few insights regarding the different elusive resources in subtleties. Numerous measurable and numerical information is additionally missing which may be a key bit of the report. In this way, initially, Woolworths report on immaterial resources is satisfactory however not exceptionally point by point. Then again, Telstras report is exceptionally nitty gritty in the impalpable resources segment. It gives all the numerical and measurable data of the different immaterial resources. The client will get a decent glance at the cash stream of different resources. There is likewise a point by point portrayal of the elusive resources and their estimation strategies to help the client in perusing the data appropriately. The amortizations and disabilities are appeared in the best possible way for the peruser to comprehend (Arrighetti and Lasagni 2015). Along these lines, in correlation with Woolworth, Telstras report is considerably more instructive and point by point. End: An immaterial resource is a significant piece of any companys resource structure. It improves accounting report wellbeing of the organizations. So the organizations need to give a nitty gritty report about their elusive resources in their report. The estimations likewise should be appeared to give a nitty gritty numerical view. AASB 138 is the standard for immaterial resource announcing in Australia. The Australian organizations Woolworth and Telstra has effectively joined their immaterial resource report in the yearly report of 2016 in consistence with AASB 138. Telstra has received a more detail based way to deal with making the report. Woolworths report is sufficient. References: Arrighetti, A., Landini, F. furthermore, Lasagni, A., 2015. Impalpable Asset Dynamics and Firm Behaviour.Industry and Innovation,22(5), pp.402-422. Deegan, C., 2013.Financial bookkeeping hypothesis. McGraw-Hill Education Australia. Rindova, V.P. furthermore, Martins, L.L., 2012. Show me the cash: A multidimensional point of view on notoriety as an impalpable asset.The Oxford handbook of corporate notoriety, pp.16-33. Russell, M., 2015. The board impetuses to perceive impalpable assets.Accounting Finance. Steenkamp, N. what's more, Steenkamp, S., 2016. AASB138: Catalyst for administrative choices lessening R D spending?.Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting,14(1). [Accessed on twentieth Sep. 2016] [Accessed on twentieth Sep. 2016] [Accessed on twentieth Sep. 2016]

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Should College Essays Be Double Spaced? The Answers You Need

Should College Essays Be Double Spaced? The Answers You NeedDo you have a lot of college essays to write and do you know the answer to the question 'should college essays be double spaced?' The majority of college students that I speak with will tell you that they read their writing twice before submitting it. That is too much, I have found. Here are a few tips to help you keep your college essay focused and read more times.First, try to write your essay as if you were reading it. What does this mean? It means do not become completely absorbed in the thoughts you are having. Instead of reading your essay from left to right to left, start reading it from front to back. If you can achieve this, then you will be able to keep your focus.Next, when looking at the question 'should college essays be double spaced,' think about your professor. Is he going to like your essay? Even if he doesn't, you may still think that he or she will. If you can create a good impression on your professor, th en your professors and instructors will respect your writing.Third, every student needs an edit. Remember to set aside extra time to go over your essay before submitting it. This is a great way to make sure that the spelling, grammar, and formatting are correct. If you do not have extra time to spare, then perhaps you should ask the school librarian to help you. She or he is an expert in teaching grammar and you want to make sure that you don't forget any little things.Finally, if you still do not know the answer to the question 'should college essays be double spaced,' look at the top of your essay. Why? Well, you may want to make sure that it does not say everything that you want it to say. For example, a college essay should not say 'my boyfriend gave me the best boyfriend ever.' Instead, write something like 'My boyfriend was the best boyfriend ever for me.'Even though I gave the example of 'my boyfriend gave me the best boyfriend ever,' double spaced writing will not be the sam e for every reader. Therefore, in your first draft, you may have to make some changes. Once you get a better feel for what college students write, then you will be able to give more creative ideas to yourself.One of the most important things that you should remember when writing is to make it personal. In this day and age, students are becoming less interested in writing as part of their education and are more interested in engaging in conversation rather than just reading.Lastly, if you need help with college essays, there are plenty of experts available on the Internet. A great resource is Kaplan University's online writing tutoring. You can take your essay and improve your writing skills by being taught by a professional.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Essay Topic - How to Write a Top Ten Essay Topics

Essay Topic - How to Write a Top Ten Essay TopicsEvery one of us need to think of a top ten essay topics that will be able to get good marks in our college or university. So as the first step you must write your essay and put all of the information that you know and this is what can make it look so appealing and also able to catch the eyes of your reader.And the most important step is to start from the beginning and starting from the very first sentence and make it really catchy. Making the title and starting the topic of the essay will help you the most in the beginning of writing the essay. You have to make sure that the title has to be short and catchy, so that you can start the first sentence of the essay as early as possible.The next important step is to do a research about the topic of the essay. After having found a few topics, you can now continue writing your topic. One of the best ways to find out how to write a top ten essay topic is to go online and search for a few of th e top ten essay topics of past and present years and also you can go through the university websites and see how they can find the best topics. This way you can make a combination of the topics and write the essay based on these.Another great idea to find out how to write a top ten essay topic is to look through the newspaper archives or news websites to find out topics that were written by famous people and then come up with your own topic based on these topics. What is great about this is that you will have something fresh and different to write about. In fact this technique is the same way that you find a topic on the internet.When writing your topic, make sure that it is relevant to the subject of the essay and if possible ask your professor for a common practice. There are many people who have tried to write an essay based on a common practice or two so make sure that you use some of these tips to start your topic. Once you get the idea of how to write a top ten essay topic you can now start the actual writing process.Now what is really great about the top ten essay topics is that it gives the writer an opportunity to express their thoughts in a way that is really not seen in the daily newspaper and many other types of media. But the essay can only be written in the method that will allow the writer to write what they want to say and at the same time it will allow the audience to get to know the writer better.The best way to find out how to write a top ten essay topic is to choose the topic that interests you the most and focus on it the most. Try to make it different from the other ones that are being written in the same category, and try to find out the best topic that has not been covered yet. All these steps will give you a good beginning to your topic and will make sure that your essay will be on the top ten essay topics that will be able to get good marks.To make sure that you are able to write a top ten essay topics you have to begin by having a re search. And once you find the best topics that have been written already, you will be able to write your topic based on these topics and this will give you the top ten essay topics that will be able to get good marks from your readers.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Higher Education At State Colleges And Universities Should...

Higher education at state colleges and universities should be free for all American citizens. American citizens who attend State Colleges and Universities at no cost, will not solved all of the nation’s problems that we face today, but maybe a good start. Supplying our citizens with free higher education is one of the best investments that our nation can make; these students will become the next generation of leaders, engineers, doctors, intellects, musicians and artists. They will be equipped with the knowledge, skills and abilities to keep our nation prosperous and innovative. If America wants to continue its supremacy, as the leader of the free world, our government better take a serious look at this issue. â€Å"In 2016 the total outstanding student loan debt in the U.S was $1.2 trillion dollars, that’s the second highest level of consumer debt behind mortgages; the debt owe to the federal government is $40 million†; According to Market Watch. â€Å"70 percent of the students, who graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 2015, were in debt; the average student debt exceeding over $35,051; that’s the most in history†. According to Edvisors. The most important resource that a government has is their human resources, which is the person. If we keep indebting the people; it is going to be detrimental to our society. It is only be in a matter of time; when those resources will no longer be a resource. To keep passing the debt through generations is not wise. Eliminating the debtShow MoreRelatedFree Tuition And The United States Essay1486 Words   |  6 Pages Free tuition for colleges is a topic that has come up a lot lately in the United States. Especially in the beginning of this year, when the democratic race was in place, Bernie Sanders started making tuition-free colleges one of his campaign points. While there are some that seem to neglect the idea of free tuition, the majority will agree that if not free at least it should be affordable. This topic is a very interesting one because it provides fascinating facts on both sides of the spectrum. OneRead MoreShould Higher Education Be A Right?985 Words   |  4 PagesShould higher education be a right in the United States? Yes. Can states afford to fund higher education and can institutions develop cost-effective strategies to assist this process? Yes and yes. Multiple approaches have been offered in the search for increasing access to affordable education. 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It is exactly why most people in the states pursue higher education, a key component to possess financial security. The task at hand has become a challenging achievement, now more than ever, as a result of skyrocketing tuition cost. It causes students to take out massive loans which, at times, cannot be returned and therefore creating billions in debt for the United States. The idea that student loans are putting thisRead MoreEstablishing Equality By Lowering The Cost Of College Tuition1615 Words   |  7 PagesEstablishing equality by lowering the cost of college tuition My research question was stimulated by â€Å"The Life of Peasants† from Life on a Medieval Barony and A Letter to my Nephew by James Baldwin. Throughout both articles equality and the idea of class systems are discussed thoroughly. 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Probably the most obvious reason education is important is to acquire the subject matter and basic knowledge needed to get by in everyday life. Whatever developments have been made till now is all with the help of education. So, is it wastage to separate extra budget for the Department of Education and Department of Science? Higher education in United States is not cheap. It has been found that the college tuition is increasingRead MoreEffects Of Raised Tuition On College Students1068 Words   |  5 PagesGovernment, W2 Adreana Hailu 10/1/2015 â€Æ' College Tuition Over the past few years there have been noticeable effects of raised tuition on college students throughout U.S. According to a recent College Board report, tuition and fees at four-year public institutions have increased by 31 percent (, Committee of education and the work force democrats). It’s not uncommon that students take out loans to afford college and later find themselves drowning in debts. NotRead MoreThe Standards Of American Education Essay1487 Words   |  6 PagesAs of late, there has been major contention about the standards of American education, one of the major points being the cost to obtain a degree. Current societal standards have condition people to aim for a prestigious degree that will help make it s holder successful. Of course, society defines success, for an individual, as being highly intelligent, outgoing, wealthy, and family-oriented. Yet, many American citizens are still stuck trying to meet the first item in th e success definition. Read MoreFree College Should Not Be Banned Essay1433 Words   |  6 Pagesconcern that the cost of going into a university or a college has become very expensive and would want their government to provide free college tuitions much like the governments in Norway, Sweden, Germany and many other counties in Europe. 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Friday, May 15, 2020

Resistance In The Workplace Essay - 1127 Words

There are times when a person must go against what is common or what others want them to do. I would define this a form resistance. To me resistance is going against what is common, or standing up to someone or some thing that you normally would not. This is a common occurrence in the workplace. Resistance in the workplace is nessicary at times to prevent getting stepped on while climbing the corporate latter. Granted there are also times when the best thing to do is sit back and let things happen. There are however times when an employee must make some noise to be heard and noticed. When someone sees oneself about to be passed up for a promotion that they are entitled to, he or she must do something. Another time some form of resistance†¦show more content†¦As with both of these methods there is power in numbers. An employee by himself can accomplish little. But with the help of others either one or a combination of the two, are effective ways of resisting the habit of comp any promoting people based on who they know not what they know. Another primary reason for resistance having a part in the workplace would be in the case of power hungry managers. This can be one of the absolute most irritating things to happen. There are times when an employees immediate manager can go on a quot;power-tripquot; and expect others to meet every order they bark out no matter how ridiculous it is. This can get to the point ware something has to be done about it. For example, an employee may be doing their respective job and the manager will walk in tell them to do something that has no relevance to what has to be done that week, simply because they enjoy bossing others about. These unnecessary demands can be denied in a few ways. The firs and most obvious way would be for the employee to simply ignore the managers. This only works if the employee is in the right. The manager will go to his superior to report the incident. The employees immediate manager will look like a complete idiot trying to justify to his boss why he wanted the employee to do the job. Another option the employee has is to accept the task but not happily. What this means is that the person can do the job, butShow MoreRelatedResistance to Change in the Workplace1154 Words   |  5 Pagesby resistance to change due to internal and external factors. Some of the major reasons why individuals are resistant to change include self-interest, lack of trust in management, lack of understanding, low tolerance for change, and varying assessments of the need for change. Regardless of whether the resistance is fueled by internal or external factors, individuals need to develop an appropriate plan for overcoming that resistance and embracing the concept. A Situation involving Resistance toRead MoreResistance Of Change Within The Workplace1182 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction - Resistance to Change Change is part of every organization and is required in order to compete with today’s competitive business environment. Acceptance, implementation of a change can be challenging and painful process. Change within an organization can cause tense situation which can be disturbing to the employees. Under such circumstances, employees have low morale, and demonstrate resistance to change. Change can fail, not because it’s worth failure but because how well that changeRead MoreLeadership Style And Development Of An Organization1463 Words   |  6 PagesMedDev case study about the ERP project implementation has been very useful source for analyzation and development of strategies and methodological techniques. It also provides clear overview about the different leadership style and development of resistance among the employee to any change. Leaderships Styles The management style is the way opted to make decisions, implement plans and express leadership behaviour to perform certain tasks and regulate the functioning of any organisation. The managementRead MoreLord Bartleby, The Scrivener : A Tale Of Wall Street1530 Words   |  7 PagesResistance in Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Tale of Wall Street Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Tale of Wall Street by Herman Melville is best summarized by an Ernest Hemingway quote which states: â€Å"The best people possess a feeling for beauty, the courage to take risks, the discipline to tell the truth, the capacity for sacrifice. Ironically, their virtues make them vulnerable; they are often wounded, sometimes destroyed.† Bartleby contrasts both his coworkers and the lawyer by boldly exercising his ownRead MoreThe Global Environment That Multinational Corporations ( Mncs ) Essay1583 Words   |  7 Pagesglobally (DeLancey, 2013). Numerous methods have been implemented by MNCs in order to capture cross-cultural differences in the workplace and how these can be readily applied to change management objectives in order to remain competitive and relevant in the ever-evolving business environment. This literature review will consider the significance that culture in the workplace has on implementing change strategies in MNCs and the implicati ons and challenges that hypothetically surface due to the divergentRead MoreThe Affects of Workplace Change and Stress1597 Words   |  7 PagesGrowth and organizational evolution causes change, resistance to that inevitability and stress as a byproduct. The tactics individuals and leaders adopt can cause harmful consequences if not managed with sensitivity and awareness. Change can be threatening for those experiencing job insecurity (Robbins Judge, 2007) or develop teams and co-workers that act at cross-purposes (Huy Mintzbereg, 2003). Change can be a source of stress, but so can workload, leadership styles, and the shuffling of rolesRead MoreMGT/311 WEEK 5 Reflection817 Words   |  4 PagesReflection One of the objectives that the team discussed was diversity in the workplace. Major corporations have encountered issues concerning diversity in the work place. Our team can directly relate to this subject in the workplace since all of us are diverse minorities in our individual work place. It was discussed in the group that diversity in the workplace is the manager’s responsibility to insure that the workplace is a diverse environment. Managers in most companies are required to hire aRead MoreThe Rise Of Musculoskeletal Disorders1434 Words   |  6 Pages(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2016). Therefore, it is highly advantageous to employers to suggest ways of reducing symptoms to theoretically reduce costs associated with MSDs in the workplace (sick leave, medical costs, etc.). Work related MSDs are caused by complex combination of factors that can extend from beyond the workplace and cause pain and discomfort of muscles, tendons, joints, and nerves (Rodrick, Karwowski, Ma rras, 2012). As a result, finding a single root cause of a MSD is nearly impossibleRead MoreCriminal Justice Trends Evaluation1581 Words   |  7 PagesThere are three kinds of organizational resistance to slowing down staffing and preservation of female patrol officers. The first organizational resistance is called Technical Resistance. Technical Resistance comprises of failure to adjust police uniforms, gear, and tools sufficiently for women, and constant issues on physical testing, and firearms during their drills, and preperations. The second organizational resistance is named Political and Cultural Resistance. According to Roslyn Muraskin and AlbertRead MoreThe Global Environment Multinational Corporations ( Mncs ) Essay1583 Words   |  7 Pagesglobally (DeLancey, 2013). Numerous methods have been implemented by MNCs in order to capture cross-cultural differences in the workplace and how these can be readily applied to change management objectives in order to remain competit ive and relevant in the ever-evolving business environment. This literature review will consider the significance that culture in the workplace has on implementing change strategies in MNCs and the implications and challenges that hypothetically surface due to the divergent

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Thematic Analysis in Support of the Theory That Early...

A thematic analysis in support of the theory that early relationships affect adult attachment Abstract. This study was a qualitative thematic analysis to see if there was any evidence in early relationships that then affects the adult attachment theory. The qualitative textual analysis was carried out on a pre-existing, edited, filmed semi-structured interview. The thematic analysis showed that there is some truth in the adult attachment theory but life experiences and circumstances also have an effect on the individual. Furthermore relationships can play an important part in our lives with some evidence showing that Bowlby’s theory has some validity, (as cited†¦show more content†¦Type B, (secure), where the image of the caregiver is seen as a secure base showing pleasure at the reunion, with lastly Type C,(insecure, anxious, ambivalent), where the attachment is likely to show distress suggesting that the caregivers presence is important ( as cited in Cooper and Roth, 2007, p31). Judith Rich Harris (1999) In the Nurture Assumption argues that parents do not actually influence their children, which have been assumed, but that it is peer groups that are a major influence in how children grow up. However there have been many theories that suggests that vertical relationships during childhood also have an equally significant impact on how we develop, (as cited in Cooper and Roth, 2007, p31). There is some support for parts of the theory, now seeing that infant attachment is related to adult attachment in certain conditions, (as cited in Cooper and Roth, 2007, p35). Furthermore relationships can play an important part in our lives with some evidence showing that Bowlby’s theory has some validity. Life events though are also deemed to be important, as found in another study (Hamilton, 1994) with the results showing that children where their family circumstances were stable became secure and the ones that had experienced major changes in their family circumstances became insecure, (as cited in Cooper and Roth, 2007, p34). Therefore this thematic analysis willShow MoreRelatedA Qualitative Study to Show How Other Affect Individual Development, Using Thematic Analysis.2633 Words   |  11 Pagesshow how other affect individual development, using thematic analysis. ABSTRACT This study will examine the ways that adults construct their own attachment experiences and relationships along and how others influence these attachments and their development. The chosen method for data collection was interviews as they provide full and detailed data for thematic analysis. 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Rather than providing a thorough literature review of all research using constructs proposed to represent the operation of basic human needs, we instead review much more selectively the current state of theories about basic human needs, with a little historical context. We have chosen six theories for comparison. 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A) It is primarily concerned with the systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of data about issues related to marketing products and services. B) It focuses mostly on monitoring the profitability of a companys products and services. C) It focuses solely on attaining an organizations sales goals in an efficient manner. Read More65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 147256 Words   |  190 Pages BUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 APPLICATION SECOND EDITION E S S AY S APPLICATION BUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 ECSNS A IYI O N S SE O D ED T With Analysis by the Staff of The Harbus, the Harvard Business School Newspaper ST. MARTIN’S GRIFFIN NEW YORK 65 SUCCESSFUL HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL APPLICATION ESSAYS, SECOND EDITION. Copyright  © 2009 byThe Harbus News Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of AmericaRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pageslamentable. Taken together, the key themes and processes that have been selected as the focus for each of the eight essays provide a way to conceptualize the twentieth century as a coherent unit for teaching, as well as for written narrative and analysis. Though they do not exhaust the crucial strands of historical development that tie the century together—one could add, for example, nationalism and decolonization—they cover in depth the defining phenomena of that epoch, which, as the essays demonstrate

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Maintenance of Capital Doctrine

Question: Discuss about the Maintenance of Capital Doctrine. Answer: Introduction: The concept of maintenance of capital is an element of the company law which regulates the amount of capital that should be held. For instance, any company must hold and not go below its capital. The reason behind this is that the liability of the stakeholders should not be compromised in case the company is faced with bankruptcy issues. Therefore the doctrine was designed to safeguard the continuity of the business as well as to cater for the interest of the creditors. Creditors play a crucial role in the success of any business because they offer credit to the companies which is paid back with interest. (Monk, 2009) From the above introduction, we may attribute the origin of the capital maintenance doctrine to two fronts. One of them is the interest of the creditors as mentioned above. Secondly, the assets factor should be considered and the manner in which they can be dispersed leads to the origin of the doctrine. (Ranganathan, 2013). The judicial implications in the matter provide the relationship between the two fronts, in that the court enforces the law for a company to hold a given amount of capital which will favor creditors in future. In the event that a company is unable to pay debts out of its investment returns, the creditors would employ this doctrine to claim their dues in that the capital reserves would be used to clear the debts. For this reason, companies are prohibited from paying back the shareholder contribution and instead pay dividends from the profits that have been accrued. (Spillane, 2010) The capital maintenance doctrine has been developed over time using case precedence and legislation. Scholars across the world, for example Jessel M.R of England are credited for designing this doctrine. His ruling in the Flitcrofts case was a land mark step. Other remarkable scholars included Trevor and Whitworth who cited a case whereby a company repossessed part its shares from the shareholders against the company law. (Spillane, 2010). After the transaction, one of the shareholders claimed more payment from the company and he had his way. The courts interpretation was that no company was allowed to buy its shares since that amounted to reduction of capital. Furthermore, the court went ahead to conclude that creditors must be considered while winding up a company. Consequently, this forms the only event under which a company can refund the capital to the shareholders. (Ranganathan, 2013) Unlike other economies, the Australian government has taken a different turn regarding the issue of the capital maintenance doctrine. There are no strict measures concerning the amount of capital to be held by a company. Due to these liberal ideologies, Australian legislators have posed arguments that border on various issues that should be addressed first. They consider this doctrine as oppressive and feel that questions of company solvency and revelation of some material information should be availed to the shareholders. The final opinion about the Australian law is that they should consider incorporating the doctrine in their laws because the country anticipates many investors who come from other parts of the world and would need the kind of protection that the doctrine offers. (McChesney, 2012) References McChesney W.A (2012). The New Generation of Risk Management for Hedge Funds and Private Equity Investments. Cengage Learning. Boston, Massachusetts Monk, E.W. (2009). Monopoly-Finance Capital and the Paradox of Accumulation. John Wiley and Sons Ranganathan, C.I. (2013). Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements. Cambridge University Press, New York Spillane, J.B. (2010). Forms of Capital and the Construction of Leadership. European Operational Research